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Full text of "Extracts and copies of letters from Sir John Wentworth, lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia, to His Grace the Duke of Portland [microform] : respecting the settlement of the Maroons in that province"

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Th«  copy  film«d  h«r«  ha*  baan  raproduead  thanka 
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Tha  imagaa  appaaring  hara  ara  tha  baat  quality 
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ginAroait*  da: 

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plua  grand  coin,  compta  tanu  da  la  condition  at 
da  la  nattatA  da  l'axamplaira  film*,  at  Btn 
conformit*  avac  las  conditions  du  contrat  da 


Original  copias  in  printad  papar  covars  ara  filmad 
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tha  last  paga  with  a  printad  or  illuatratad  impras- 
sion,  or  tha  back  covar  whan  appropriata.  All 
othar  original  copias  ara  filmad  baginning  on  tha 
first  paga  wKh  a  printad  or  illuatratad  impras- 
sion,  and  anding  on  tha  laat  paga  with  a  printad 
or  illuatratad  impraaaion. 

Las  axamplairas  originaux  dont  la  couvartura  9n 
papiar  aat  imprimte  sont  filmis  an  commandant 
par  la  pramiar  plat  at  an  tarminant  soit  par  la 
darnlAra  paga  qui  comporta  una  amprainta 
d'imprassion  ou  d'illustration,  soit  par  la  sacond 
plat,  aalon  la  cas.  Tous  las  autras  axamplairas 
originaux  aont  filmte  an  commanpant  par  la 
pramlAra  paga  qui  comporta  una  amprainta 
d'imprassion  ou  d'illustration  at  an  tarminant  par 
la  darnlAra  paga  qui  comporta  una  talla 

Tha  last  racordad  frama  on  aach  microficha 
ahall  contain  tha  symbol  ^»>  (moaning  "CON- 
TINUED"), or  tha  symbol  y  (moaning  "END"), 
whichavar  appliaa. 

Un  daa  symbolas  suivants  apparattra  sur  la 
darnlAra  imaga  da  chaqua  microficha,  salon  la 
cas:  la  symbols  —►  aignifia  "A  SUIVRE",  la 
symbols  y  signifia  "FIN". 

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diffarant  raduction  ratios.  Thosa  too  larga  to  ba 
antiraly  includad  in  ona  axpoaura  ara  filmad 
baginning  in  tha  uppar  laft  hand  cornar,  laft  to 
right  and  top  to  bottom,  aa  many  framas  aa 
raquirad.  Tha  following  diagrams  illustrata  tha 

Las  cartas,  planchas,  tablaaux,  ate,  pauvant  Atra 
filmte  A  das  taux  da  rMuction  diffArants. 
Lorsqua  la  documant  aat  trop  grand  pour  Atra 
raproduit  an  un  saul  clichA,  il  aat  filmA  A  partir 
da  I'angia  supAriaur  gaucha,  da  gaucha  A  droita. 
at  da  haut  an  bas,  an  pranant  la  nombra 
d'imagas  nAcassaira.  Las  diagrammas  suivanta 
illustrant  la  mAthoda. 


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1  2  3 








^r  ;. 


ExtraSs  and  Copies  of  LETTERS  from 
Sir  John  Wentworth,  Lieutenant  Go- 
vernor of  I^ova  Scotia^  to  his  Grace  the 
Duke  of  Portland  ;  refpe£king  the 
Settlement  of  the  MAROONS  in  that 





Ordered  to  be  printed  lOth  April  1797. 





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*i,i,V,     ;,  !^ 


Extraft  of  a  LETTER  from  Sir  John  Wentworth 
Lieutenant  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia,  to  the  Duke  of 
Portland  j  dated  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,   23d  July 



X7  ESTERDAY  Mr.  Quarrell  arrived  in  the  Dover  Tranfport  j  the  other 
*  Tranfport  arrived  the  2ift  Inftant,  with  all  the  Maroons  in  good 
Health,  and  as  I  am  informed  very  quiet  and  orderly.  It  is  agreed  that 
thefe  People  remain  on  Board  the  Tranfports  in  this  Harbour,  until 
His  Majefty's  Pleafure  is  communicated  rcfpefting  them. 

v^-   r'.\^^ 

\N*  27./ 



N°  2. 




i"    *     Copy  of  a  LETTER  from  Sir  John  Wentworth  to 
\[  the  Duke  of  Portland  j  dated  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia, 

r  astJ^  July  1796. 

^  "'**',  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,     ;• 

y,  w  I  25th  July  1796.        ''■* 

My  Lord  Duke,                    ?•*:';'  -^^0^ 

1BE0  Leave,  with  great  Deference,  to  reprefent  that  this  Afternoon  an 
Arrangement  has  been  concerted  with  His  Royal  Highnefs  Prince 
Edward,  to  relieve  the  Maroons  from  their  Confinement  on  Board  Ship, 
by  employing  them  voluntarily,  as  Labourers  on  the  Fortifications 
eredting  here,  at  Nine  Pence  per  Diem;  Provifions,  Lodging,  and 
Cloathing  being  found  them.  The  propofed  Pay  is  adequate,  and  the 
Whole  will  be  comfortable  to  them,  while  a  Saving  will  be  made  in 
Tranfport  Hire  and  Laboiir.— Probably  about  One  hundred  and  Fifty 


[    4    I 


Mrn  will  engage,  and  thereby  releafc  fomc  of  the  Inhabitants  to  aflift  in 
the  Harvells  and  other  Civil  Occupations,  which  are  now  much  dif- 
treircd  for  Want  of  Hands. 
The  grcatcft  Care  will  be  ttkcn  to  prelenre  Peace  and  good  Order 

-among  thcfe  People ;  who  feem  perfectly  well  difpofed,  infonnuch  that 
there  is  not  any  Caufe  to  apprehend  the  Icaft  Inconvenience,  but  on  the 
contrary,  that  very  falutary  Effefts  will  be  derived  from  this  Meafurc,  which. 
His  Royal  Highnefs  being  now  much  engaged,  defircs  me  to  reprefentj 
and  that  he  will  particularly  rrport  to  your  Grace  by  the  HufTar  Frigate, 

.  expelled  to  fail  from  hence  -with  a  Convoy  in  Icfs  than  Three  Weeks. 

?  f.: 

His  Grace 
-the  Duke  of  Portland. 

I  am,  &c.   "^ 
(Signed)      WENTWORTH. 


-»    »-<^    .!   «•  T 


N-  3. 


Extraft  of  a  L  E  T T  E  R  from  Sir  John  Wentwortm  to 
the  Duke  of  Portland  ;  dated  HaliAub  Nova  Scotia, 
13th  Auguft  1796. 

'HE  Maroons  arc  now  lodged  about  Two  Miles  from  this  Town, 
with  tolerable  CoBvcRicnce  to  themfclves—fcparate  from  the  Inha- 
bitants, and  well  fupplied  with  Provifions  and  fuch  Cloathing  as  is  moft 
immediately  neceflary,  and  to  be  procured  here. — This  is  done  by  my 
Advice,  and  under  my  daily  Infpe^ion,  by  William  Dawes  Quarrell, 
and  Alexander  Ochterlony,Erquires,  who  came  with  them  as  Principal 
and  Deputy  Commiflary  appointed  by  Lord  Balcarres,  and  fupplied  with 
a  Credit  of  Twenty-iive  Thoufand  Pounds,  Jamaica  :Currency,  by  that 
Government,  for  the  Ufes  of  thefe  Maroons;  which  is  applied  accord- 
ingly as  Occafion  demands.  Thefe  Gentlemen  are  exaeedingly 
interefted  in  Behalf  of  the  Maroons;  judicious,  difcreet,  prudent, 
and  attentive  to  every  Thing  that  may  promote  their  Welfare.  By  my 
Advice  and  Information  they  purdiafed  feveral  Eftaf^s  within  Five 
Milts  of  this  Town,  whereon  there  are  Houfes  and  "Lands  cleared  for 
Cultivation;  which,  with  Eight  or  Ten  tnofe  which  we  can  ercift  imme- 
diately, will  commodioufly  and  wariTily  lodge  ^em~for  the  enfoing  Win- 
ter, and  before  any  cold  Weather  can  trouble  them.— Thefe  Trafts  are 
contiguous,  and  will  comprize  upward  of  Three  Thoufand  Acres,  and 
with  the  Buildings  and  Rfpaifs  jiccciTary,  >vili  coft  aboot  Three  Thou* 



(    s   ) 

fand  Pounds  Sterling.  As  it  abounds  with  Wood,  botii  for  Fuel  and 
Timber,  a  Saving  will  occur  in  thofe,  and  in  Houfe  Rent,  of  more  than 
Two  Thoufand  Pounds  Sterling,  before  May  next ;  and  an  exorbitant 
Advance  in  the  Price  of  Fuel  prevented  in  the  Town,  fhould  their 
Reftdence  here  require  a  Supply.  To-morrow  I  have  recommended  to 
begin  removing  feme  Families  on  to  their  rcfpeftive  Habitations,  and 
intend  to  have  the  Whole  of  them  fettled  by  Michaelmas ;  by  which 
Means  they  will  be  prepared  to  cultivate  their  Lands  to  effe^  the  next 
Year.  This  Edate  bounds  on  One  End  upon  a  pleafanc  fifhing  Harbour, 
where  Fifti  may  be  eafily  caught  every  Day  in  the  Year,  of  the  bcft 
Kinds,  and  of  Seventeen  different  Sorts. 

Thefe  People  exprefs  great  Delight  in  the  Country,  and  the  profpeft 
of  being  fettled  in  it.  They  are  perfc6tly  quiet,  orderly,  and  peaceable, 
and  I  have  not  a  Doubt  but  that  they  will  be  more  happy  than  ever  they 
were  in  Jamaica  {  they  declare  to  me  daily,  that  they  are  fure  all  their 
Sorrows  and  Misfortunes  are  at  an  End. 

From  long  Experience  in  New  England,  where  the  Winter  is  morefevere 
than  in  Nova  Scotia,  I  am  fatisfied  there  need  not  be  any  Apprehenlions 
entertained  of  this  Climate  injuring  them.  If  they  are  well  fed,  warmly 
cloathed,  and  comfortably  lodged,  I  have  always  found  Negroes  dire6lly 
from  the  hotted  Coalls  of  Africa,  have  grown  (Irong  and  \u(ty  in  the 
Winter,  and  that  they  did  not  fuffer  by  it.  I  have  had  many  Inftances 
of  this  Faft,  enough  to  eftablifh  it,  and  to  leave  me  not  a  Fear  of  Suc- 
cefs  in  this  Cafe,  if  the  Articles  I  have  recommended  to  be  imported  from 
England  for  their  Ufe^  can  be  had  here  in  November  next 

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N*  4. 

Copy  of  a  LETTER  from  Sir  Johm  Wewtworth, 
to  the  Duke  of  Portland}  dated  Halifax,  Nova 
Scotia,  20th  September  1796. 

Halifax,  Nova  Scotia«  20th  September  1796. 

My  Lord  Duke, 

WITH  the  utmoft  Deference  I  beg  Leave  to  acknowledge  the  Honour 
of  Your  Grace's  Letter  N*  18,  dated  Whitehall,  15th  July  1796* 
fignifying  to  me  His  Majefty's  moft  gracious  and  beneficent  Com- 
mands, for  the  comfortable  Settlement  and  Support  of  the  Maroons ; 
alfo  inclofing  Lord  Balcarres's  Correfpondence  for  my  Information. 

His  Majefty's  Pleafure  for  the  Prefervation  of  thefe  People,  having 
been  aifb  communicated  in  Your  Grace's  preceding  Difpatches,  and  the 
Seafon  admitting  of  no  Delay,  we  diligently  purfued  neceflfary  Means, 
which  I  had  the  Honour  to  repprt  to  Your  Grace  N"  28,  (Duplicate 
herewith)  which  I  am  happy  to  find  exa6Uy  fulfil  your  Grace's  InflruC' 
tions*  I  have  therefore  now  to  add,  that  thele  People  are  all  fettled 
in  comfortable  good  Houfes.  On  the  i8th  Inftant  I  perfonally  in- 
fpefted  them,  examined  every  Family  with  particular  Attention,  in- 
quired into  all  their  Wants,  explained  to  them  His  Majefty's  Commands 
in  their  Favour,  and  the  Obligations  which  refulted  on  their  Part  to  be 
faithful,  loyal,  peaceable,  fober,  and  induftrious  Subjedls:  Which 
they  perfedlly  underftand,  and  I  am  perfuaded  they  will  honeftly 
perfi>rm,  with  quite  as  few  Deviations  as  we  Ihould  find  in  an  equal 
Number  of  more  enlightened  White  People,  from  iny  Part  of  Europe 
or  America,  and  far  more  eafily  reformed.  They  are  remarkably  clean 
in  their  Perfons,  Houfes,  Cloathing,  and  Utenfils,  and  very  healthy. 
Some  few  have  died  of  Diforders  and  Debility  contradled  on  Board 
Ship  i  more  have  recovered,  and  ftill  more  been  born. 

Provifions  are  ferved  to  them  weekly,  of  the  beft  Quality  and  ample 
Quantity,  with  which  they  are  unexceptionably  fatisfied.  Being  expert 
in  cutting  Wood,  they  are  providing  Winter's  Fuel  from  their  own 
Lands;  many  Families  have  a  fufficient  Quantity  brought  to  their  Doors, 
the  reft  will  foon  be  equally  prepared,  which  alfo  facilitates  their  next 
Year's  Planting.  Proper  Cloathing  is  daily  making  and  iffuing  in  fuch 
Manner  as  to  meet  the  Climate,  until  this  Article  can  be  fully  completed 
by  the  Arrival  of  thofe  Neceflaries  which  the  Commiflloner  wrote  for,  on 
my  Recommendation,  by  the  HuiTar  Frigate. 


t    7    ] 

At  the  Meeting  on  the  i8ih  Indant  fome  Arrangements  were  dircd^cd 
for  their  internal  good  Order  and  peaceable  Dcraeanour— the  dcclarcdf 
well-undcrdooJ,  and  entirely  acceptable  Bafts  of  which  is,  Gratitude  to 
the  King  for  Benefits  and  Proteftion  extended  to  them,  and  Obedience 
to  the  Lawst — modifying  thefe  Regulations  fo  as  to  lead  them  pradualljr 
into  the  general  Operation  of  the  Laws  of  the  Province.  The  Principles 
of  thefe  Rules  are,  that  all  fmall  Offences  are  to  be  openly  cried  before 
Mr.  Quarrell  and  Mr.  Ochlerlony,  in  Prefence  of  at  leaft  Three  Maroon 
Captains)  and  if  fully  proved,  the  Offender  to  be  delivered  over  to 
them,  informing  them  what  would  be  the  Sentence  of  the  Ltw  if  the 
Cafe  arofe  between  White  Men,  explaining  the  Good  that  they  might 
expert  from  adopting  the  fame.-^As  their  former  Habits  led  to  fevere 
Punifhmencs,  I  have  directed  that  thofe  of  any  cruel  Proportion  (hould 
be  fufpended,  until  the  Cafe  was  reported  to  me  by  the  Comniiflioners 
and  the  Captains  who  were  at  the  Trial.     In  my  Intercourfe  with  them 
on  this  Subjeft,  they  earneftly  expreffed  their  Wifhes  to  be  inftrufted 
in  our  Religion,  and  to  have  their  Children  taught  to  read  and  write ; 
from  whence  the  happieft  Coilfeqiicmies  may  be  expefled.     Mr.  Quar- 
rell and  Mr.  Ochterlony  fully  coincide  with  me  j  and  I  have  appointed 
the  Reverend  Benjamin  Gcrrifh  Gray,  who  is  to  be  ordained  next' Sunday 
for  a  Country  Parifh,  which,  at   my  Rcqueft  to  the  Bifhop  of  Nova 
Scotia,  I  prevail  on  him  to  exehange*.    This  Gentleman  had  a  good 
Education  in  England,  is  amiable  ind  conciliating  in  his  Manners,  dif- 
creet,  patient,  and  ingenious,  and  peculiarly  accomplifhed  for  this  very 
laborious  and  difHculr  Duty.    The  Shell  of  a  large  Houfe  nearly  cen- 
tral in  the  Settlement,  is  ordered  to  be  made  convenient  for  a  Chapel ; 
and  the  Second  Sunday  in  OAober  I  (hall  open  the  Church  by  attending 
Divine  Service  therein.  ,    .   ,<     •*  v   i-     l  >     i  }■■ 

In  the  Corrcfpondence  irtclofed  to  me,  I  find  fome  few  Marboris  re- 
marked for  lefs  favourable  Confideration. — This  might  have  been  expe- 
dient had  they  remained  in  Jamaica,  but  Would  not  be  advifeable  here. 
I  have  converfed  with  thefe,  and  others  the  beft  informed  and  mofl  fenfiblc 
among  them,  and  cannot  difcern  any  Malice  or  Revenge  in  their  Senti- 
ments i  that  they  in  Faft  regretted  the  War,  and  thought  themfelves  pur- 
fuing  Sclf-prefcrvation  only.  In  thefe  Communications,  they  mention 
the  Spanilh  Dogs  as  Objefts  of  Terror,  from  the  wonderful  Reprcfenta- 
tions  of  them ;  but  that  they  had  never  fufFered  by  or  even  fcen  them. 
Indeed,,  I  rather  think  they  are  now  afhamed  at  having  been  frightened  by 
them,  and  that  they  would  now  be  efleemed  a  ridiculous  Scarecrow, 

The  Government  of  Jamaica  having  granted  a  liberal  Sum  for  the 
Removal,  and  to  commence  the  Settlement  of  the  Maroons,  and  ap- 
pointed Mr.  Quarrell,  Commiffary,  and  Mr.  Ochlerlony  AfTiftant  Com- 
iiulTarVj  to  fupcrintend  th«fe  benevolent  Intentions,  it  appeared  to  me 



[    8    I 

expedient  chat  the  Expenditure  (bould  be  cranfa^ed  by  them,  and  the 
Monici  rcquifitc  alfo  drawn  for  by  them  on  the  Agent  of  the  Ifland, 
whereto  thty  were  authorized,  and  a  proper  Credit,  as  I  underftand, 
lodged  with  Meflrs.  Millegan  and  Mitchell  in  London. — This  Mode 
appears  to  embrace  the  Objects  of  your  Grace's  IndrudUon  on  that 
Point  ^  and  therefore  will  be  continued  until  your  Grace  may  be  pleated 
to  direct  vnc  otherwife,  or  thefe  Funds  are  expended.  In  fuch  Nccenity, 
due  Care  (hall  be  had  in  drawing  conformable  to  thofe  Direflions.  Pro- 
bably thi«  may  not  foon  happen,  as  I  believe  the  Government  of  Ja- 
maica are  fully  and  gcneroufly  difpofed  to  render  the  Maroons  happy 
in  any  other  Country.  Among  other  Reafons  for  this  Opinion,  is  the 
judicious  Choice  of  Mr.  Quarrell  and  Mr.  Ochterlony,  to  accompany 
and  fuperintend  ih«  Intereds  of  thefe  poor  People.  I  cannot  do  ade- 
quate Judice  to  the  aflfedlionate  Zeal,  unwearied  Afliduity,  great  Judg- 
ment, and  perfe6l  Difintercftednefs,  which  thefe  Gentlemen  invariably 
cxcn,  under  my  immediate  and  hourly  Obfervation«  to  cfSeA  the  excellent 
Intentions  of  their  Conftituents }  inibmuch  that  I  have  not  a  Doubt  the 
truly  humane  Wifhes  of  His  Majeftj^'s  Government  herein  will  be 
fully  accumplifhed ;  and  that  whatever  Caufes  may  have  removed  them 
into  thi.s  Province,  their  increafed  Happinefs  will  furely  be  the  Effedk. 
They  daily  become  more  fenfible  of  it,  and  exprefs  to  me  no  other  Anxiety 
than  their  Fears  to  be  removed.  Nothing  would  create  fuch  Diftrefs  as  to 
carry  them  to  Sierra  Leone }  nor  could  they  be  prevailed  on,  by  any 
Perfuafions,  to  return  to  Jamaica. 

I  humbly  confide  in  your  Grace's  great  Goodnefs  to  excufe  fo  long  a 
Detail,  which  arifes  from  a  dutiful  Solicitude  to  fulfil  the  Royal  Com- 
mands, in  a  Cafe  entirely  new,  and  comprehending  all  the  Interefts  of 
fuch  a  numerous  Body  of  People  {  which  will  be  beft  promoted  by  in- 
forming your  Grace  of  their  precife  and  a£tual  Situation.      ; 

,  -  ,    ,  7v'      ■  \  ,r->-''v^ 

.   I  have  the  Honour  to  be,  &c.  '" 

"t  '■  I'j"-, 



I   '           *  *      '     (    '  »      '  i '  "*i  .    f  V  '"^  *                         ,  '    ..     I  - 

:•'"'*■'     His  Grace     -'"^ »_!■,♦  ■•••>  ■•■»':*'    •-    "•     ••-  •;    ' 

'    .'       .    .J 

The  Duke  of  Portland. 

>yp.\    -r-!  vj*;t-  :..:., 

■         ,       •'     =^'. 

.   -.   :       .:-•    '   ^'^•-..-s;  :  ■  "    ".•'   "^  ,   .  -         ^   ' :    ^    "  . 

■■  ^■■■'i.i;  ':■ 

•.    •   .J.:.'.,,:);:.:;  --.  ..Vj^v-j--.-  'X  \.:ff  V;.  -,.^^ 

-*-  ' 

-       "         :     -     :''■;.    i  '■    ''-!«..  ;f:^n';i.t     'ri,;.  ■  .1    ' r^     ;. 

o-:^:  -^   ..) 


.,i\     ^..•.;-'l  .^.,  -  v/    ,   i',.  y.'.j     ,     ,.r,i.  ,:    ,  ,, 

-.i  ■' 

'  ~~'^'  .- 



"-.   .'  •:•« 

•'-^\    [    9    ] 

•  ♦* 

■(/.♦tf  < 


Extraft  of  a  LETTER  from  Lieutenant  Governor 
.^  Sir  John  Wentworth,  Baronet,    to  his  Grace    the 

"    Duke  of  Portland  i  dated  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  a4th 
September  1796. 

TH  E  Maroons  are  much  attached— are  imprefled  with  Hatred  to  the 
French.— Although  they  may  hence  be  fafcly  trufted,  yet  their 
"Wives  and  Children,  to  whom  ihey  are  extremely  attached,  bein^ 
Pledges  for  their  Fidelity,  they  will  be  advantageoufly  employed  more 
immediately  under  my  own  Infpe£tion,  and  with  a  Company  of  Rifle- 
men, who  arc  equal  to  either  Maroons  or  Indians  in  the  Woods  and 
difficult  rocky  Country.  .  .  ....,' 


i:    • 



M                                                                      't                        • 

N-6.   >  ^*"- 

^  • » 

\                        '        * 

Extraft  of  a  LETTER  from  Lieutenant  Governor 
Sir  John  Wentworth,   Baronet,  to  his  Grace  the 
'       ..     ,      Duke  of  Portland;   dated  Halifax,    Nova  Scotia, 
*    8th  06kober  1796.  .^        f  , 

TH E  Maroons  arc  daily  progreffing  in  Preparations  for  the  Winter. 
Their  Conduft  ftill  continues  to  be  much  better  than  could  be  cx- 
pefted;  with  very  little  Exception,  it  is  quite  meritorious.  They  will 
be  decidedly  good  Menagainft  any  Enemy.  I  am  perfuaded  they  are 
attached  to  mej  and  that  they  are  fully  convinced,  not  only  their  Com- 
fort, but  alfo  their  future  Views  and  Military  Credit,  depend  on  their 
-Obedience  and  Affcftion  to  His  Majefty's  Government. 

■.         -  .    'iv^  ■ 







t      10     1        - 


il   t- 

!■     t 


:j     8 

/Copy  \ 

In- 33-/ 

•N*  7. 

Copy  of  a  LETTER  (N"  33)  from  Sir  John 
Wentworth  to  the  Duke  of  Portland;  dated 
Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  29th  Oftober  1796. 

Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  29th  Oftober  1796. 
My  Lord  Duke, 

*T  BiG  Leave  moft  refpeiflfully  to  acknowledge  the  Honour  of  your 
-*■  Grace's  Letter,  N"  1 9,  which  will  be  partly  obeyed  in  my  Letters 
N"  28,  29,  30,  and  31.  . 

It  is  incumbent  on  me  to  obferve,  that  I  am  ftill  fully  perfuaded  that 
the  Climate  of  this  Country  will  be  found  healthy  and  comfortable  to 
the  Maroons,  if  they  are  well  fed,  comfortably  lodged  and  cloathed,  and 
proper  Attention  exercifed  toward  their  gradual  Inftruftion  in  the  Ha- 
bits of  I  nduftry,  and  prudent  Ufe  of  their  Benefits}  of  all  which  they 
are  perfedly  capable. 

The  Cafe  of  the  Negroes  removed  to  Nova  Scotia  in  the  Year  1783 
was  entirely  different  from  that  of  the  Maroons :  Neverthelefs,  upon 
Examination  it  will  be  found,  that  the  Refult  incontrovertibly  juftifles 
my  Expedations  with  refpeft  to  the  Climate  upon  the  Maroons. 

The  Negroes  brought  toward  Autumn  into  this  Province  from  New 
York,  and  other  more  Southern  Climates,  were  Slaves  fuddenly  emanci- 
pated from  Mafters,  whofe  effential  Intereft  it  was  to  fupprefs  and  extin- 
guilh  every  Idea  of  providing  for  themfeives,  or  having  any  Property. 
With  thefe  Habits  they  joined  the  Army  in  it's  feveral  Departments, 
where  Obedience  and  provided  Subfiftence  were  ftill  united — here  they 
gathered  more  Diffoiutenefs  than  oeconomical  Difcretion.  At  the  general 
Removal  of  Britifti  Subjedls  in  1783  to  Nova  Scotia,  the  Juftice  of  the 
Britifh  Government  refufing-to  leave  thefe  poor  People  to  the  refentful 
and  probable  fevere  Treatment  of  thofeinto  whofe  unlimited  Power  they 
would  revert  if  they  remained  in  the  United  States,  they  were  conveyed 
hither.  At  the  fame  Time  an  Influx  of  many  Thoufands  of  His  Ma- 
jerty's  loyal  Subjedls  alfo  arrived  ;  all  were  to  be  located,  and  Provifion 
made  for  their  Settlement.  The  approaching  Winter  excited  Appre- 
henfions,  and  univerfal  Competition  to  provide  Places  and  Lodgments. 
The  Government  h  e  not  having  had  much  Experience  in  fettling  In- 
habitants in  a  new  Country,  which  requires  that  Sort  of  local  Knowledge 
deriveable  from  Experience  only,  were  embarraflcd  in  the  Midft  of  their 


[  "  ] 

Endeavours  and  Exertions  to  accommodate  the  People ;  Gfcourfethc 
Black  People,  unequal  to  folicit  and  manage  as  the  White  People  did, 
and  habitually  lefs  confidered,  they  had  not  as  much  Attention  as  othcr- 
•wifc  they  might  have  had,  and  which  was  more  ncccdary  for  them  for 
the  Caufes  before  liiggelled  ;  it  therefore  refulted,  that  they  were  late 
located,  and  without  proper  Method.  The  ample  Provifions,  and  fonie 
Cloathingand  NecirlTiries  which  were  afforded  to  them  by  the  Juftice 
and  Benevolence  of  Great  Britain,  became  the  Inftrumenrs  of  their  Idle- 
nels  and  Diflipation,  inftead  of  the  Bafis  and  Means  of  their  Indullry 
and  Comfort.  Thus  circumftanced,  they  progreflTed  flowly  in  focial 
.(Economy ;  yet  during  the  Effervcfccnce  and  Circulation  of  Money 
caufed  by  fo  great  an  AccefHon  of  People,  all  poflefling  fome,  and  many 
confiderable  Property,  the  Negroes  found  Employment  and  Support. 
;But  this  State  of  Things  fubfiding  fooner  than  was  forefeen,  and  no 
Arrangement  taken  to  lead  into  Employment,  both  White  and  Black 
People  felt  the  Incoii/enience ;  many  of  the  former  quitted  the  Province, 
which  the  Black  People  could  not  do,  and  they  became  much  im- 

In  this  Situation  the  fublimcft  Charity  difcovcred  their  Diftrefs,  fym- 
pathized  in  their  Sorrows,  and,  from  undoubted  and  excellent  Motives 
of  Humanity,  extended  a  generous  and  liberal  Relief  to  their  Suf- 

Unfortunately,  however,  their  Diftrefles  were  imputed  to  the  only 
.>Caufe  which  had  really  been  friendly  to  them,  viz.  the  Climate ;  in 
which  they  were  ftill  healthy,  although  poor,  and  almoft  naked.  The 
Zeal  and  AfFe6tion  which  their  calamitous  Cafe  had  excited,  overlooked 
this  pofitive  Feature,  and  they  were  moft  of  them  removed,  with  every 
poffible  Care  and  Comfort,  to  Sierra  Leone,  where,  I  believe,  the  greateft 
Kindnefs  has  been  continued  to  them.  Yet  many  more  of  thofe  have 
died,  in  Proportion  to  their  Numbers,  than  of  thofe  who  remained  here. 
Thefe  have  almoft  ftruggled  through  their  Difficulties,  Employments 
having  been  encouraged  for  all  Orders  of  People:  The  Black  People 
have  partaken  of  its  Ufes,  and  daily  growing  into  Habits  of  managing 
and  providing  for  themlelves,  they  are  now  }uft  as  happy  and  com- 
fortable as  any  other  People  of  the  fame  Occupations  in  the  Province — 
they  are  as  robuft  and  healthy,  and  have  as  many  and  as  fine  Children  as 
the  other  Inhabitants ;  and,  with  the  Exhibition  of  fome  moderate  occa- 
fional  Aid,  where  Circumftances  may  arife  to  require  Relief  (poflibly  to 
the  Amount  of  Five  or  Six  Hundred  Pounds  per  Annum  for  Three 
Years  to  come)  I  verily  believe  more  real  Benefits  would  be  derived  to 
die  Caufc  of  Humanity,  than  from  all  the  Expence  that  has  been  in- 
curred for  the  Settlement  of  thofe  fcnt  to  Sierra  Leone. 








[      12      ] 

•  i' 

Since  my  Appointment  to  this  Government,  I  have  taken  Care  that 
they  are  equally  protcfted  and  encouraged  as  other  His  Majefty's  Sub- 
jects ;  and  Slavery  being  almoft  exterminated  here,  Diftinfiions  naturally 
painful  to  thef:  People  are  gradually  dying  away.  In  the  Royal  Nova 
Scotia  Regiment  under  my  Command,  there  arc  many  who  adt  as  Pio- 
neers, and  are  good  Men.  A  Company  of  thofe  refident  in  and  near 
the  Town  are  attached  to  the  Firft  Battalion  of  Halifax  Militia,  an  able, 
daring,  and  faithful  Body  of  Men.  »■ 


^  At  Digby,  on  the  Bafon  of  Annapolis,  in  my  official  Progrcfs  laft 
Autumn  to  examine  the  local  Circumftances  of  the  Inhabitants  and 
Country,  1  was  received  by  the  Regiment  of  Militia,  and  on  my  De- 
.parture  attended  by  a  Company  of  Black  Men,  well  armed,  of  decent 
and  orderly  Deportment,  and  of  as  good  able  Stature  and  Countenance 
-as  any  other  Men.  Some  few  of  them  were  badly  cloathed,  owing  to 
tjnavoidable  Misfortunes,  which  might  have  been  relieved  at  Eighty 
-Guineas  Expence,  and  every  Family  made  quite  happy.  In  every  Part 
t)f  the  Province  where  they  are  fcattered,  I  have  feen  them,  and  never 
fail  to  enquire  minutely  into  their  Circumftances.  They  often  lament 
the  Want  of  Cloathing,  or  the  Want  of  a  Cow,  or  fome  other  particular 
Comfort  i  but  I  never,  in  any  One  Inftance^  have  heard  them  complain  of 
the  Ciiraate,  '  ~?  ' 

The  Care  of  the  Maroons  is  far  different,  and  more  dellreable  than 
thofe  People  have  experienced.  Thefe  are  liberally  provided  with  every 
Neceflary  to  render  the  Climate  particularly  falutary  to  them.  They 
have  zealous  and  kindly  difpofed  CommifTaries  refiding  with  them, 
wholly  devoted  to  fupply  their  Wants,  to  remedy  and  relieve  all  the 
Difficulties  that  muft  be  expeded  to  occur  in  removing  to  a  new 
Country;  in  changing  the  Manners  of  War  and  Huntingfor  thofe  of 
Peace  and  patient  Induftry  j  and  in  fubmitting  to  be  confidered  without 
Terror,  or  the  Self-importance  derived  from  it.  Means  of  Inftrudlion 
and  moral  and  religious  Improvement  are  provided  and  perfeveringly 
applied  to  thefe,  while  thofe  were  long  negledted  in  this  ireiportant  Ad- 
miiiiftration,  which  is.moilof  all  others  to  be  relied  upon  for  their  Civi- 
lization, and  focial  as  ^eil  as  religious  Interefts.  I  cannot  but  forefee 
that  fome  Difficulties  and  Inconveniencies  may  frequently  arife;  and 
-that  Pat;ence,  Vigilance,  Perfeverance,  and  Difcretion,  muft  be  exer- 
cifed  in  the  Progrefs  of  their  Settlement,  and  that  it  will  continue  to  be 
a  Source  of  increafed  Care  and  Attention  to  me  j  but  as  it  is  anObjeft 
highly  intcrcfting  to  fo  important  a  Part  of  His  Majefty's  Dominions  as 
the  liland  of  Jamaica,  and  more  efpecially  and  above  all  other  Confi- 
derations,  it; being  His  Majefty's  moft  gracioiis  Commands  to  pay  every 
Care  and  Attention  to  the  Comfort  and  Prefervation  of  thefe  People, 
J. Ihall  continue  .moft  dutifully  to  exert  every  poflibk  Diligence  and 


■  .[    .'3    ] 

Ability  to  cLcct  the  Royal  Commands,  which  your  Grace  has  been 
plcafed  to  fignify  to  mej  and  I  have  not  a  Doubt  but  with  as  much 
Succcfs  and  Happincfs  to  the  People  as  thofe  moft  interefted  for  their 
Welfare  will  reafonably  expeft  can  ever  be  communicated  to  that 
Number  and  Defcription. 

All  which  is  moft  humbly  fubmittcd,  with  the  utmoft  Deference, 
hoping  for  your  Grace's  favourable  Confidcration,  and  Reprcfcntation 
for  HisMajcfty'scondefccnding  gracious  Approbation. 

I  have,  &c. 

,  "  I   I'^'lX!^''^  :-l'.^     (Signed)    "    ''::''-    J.  Wentworth. 


/■     ff 

■  •  ,     r  ■ 

'  '1. 

■'•,  ("^4  •)'■•'. 


'■-.  •  ^i.  . 

-  ■ .  >  i  %,-  i  1 

"  -5 

His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Portland, 



«      !'  < 
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■  1 




J  I 

•ti      « 



'    Tixtraft  of  a  LETTER  from  Lieutenant  Governor  Sir 
'      '  '"   '       John  Wbntworth,  Baronet,  to  His  Grace  the  Duke 
of   Portland;    dated  Halifax,    Nova  Scptia,  aift 
December  1796. 

nrMB  Maroon*  continue  to  be  in  good  Health,  only  One  old  Man, 
*  upwards  of  Eighty  Years  old,  is  fick.  Their  Apprehenfions  of  the 
"Winter's  Severity  is  entirely  done  away,  by  Experience,  good  Health,  and 
comfortable  Cloathing  and  Subfiftencc,  which  is  amply  furnifhcd  by  the 
Arrival  of  the  Stores  from  London.  Every  poffible  Attention  is  exer- 
cifed  towards  their  Comfort,  which  will  be  greatly  increafed  hy  removing 
them  in  Families  into  feparate  Houfes  and  Farms  annexed,  as  foon  as 
the  enfuing  Scafon  admits.  At  prclent  there  are  more  in  each  Houfe 
than  would  be  expedient,  owing  to  the  Want  of  Materials  and  Artificers 
to  build  more  before  the  Winter  commenced.  Every  Sunday  public 
Worfliip  is  performed  in  the  Church  by  the  Reverend  Mr.  Gray,  which 
is  attended  with  great  Decency  and  Defire  of  Inftruftion — fever^l  are 
baptized,  and  fome  married  under  Engagements  to  avoid  Polygamy. 
The  School  is  alfo  daily  attended  by  the  Children,  under  Inftrudion  of 
Mr.  Chamberlain,  a  Man  of  Education  and  excellent  Principles,  pecu- 
liarly qualified,  having  formerly  been  a  Teacher  to  the  Indians  in  the 
Wildernefs  of  America,  but  being  a  Loyaliil,  removed  to  this  Place. 
Thefe  Gentlemen,  with  their  Families,  have,  at  my  Requeft,  removed 
into  the  Maroon  Settlement,  that,  by  their  daily  Advice  to  ihe  Families., 
they  may  be  comforted  j  all  Cafuakies  explained,  and  Modes  applicable 
learned  to  them,  which  they  are  made  to  comprehend  without  Difficulty, 
as  all  of  them  underftand  the  Englilh  Language,  and  many  of  them  fpeak 
it  fluently.  From  a  faithful  and  judicious  Perfeverance  in  thefe  impor- 
tant Inftitutions,  I  anticipate  the  greateft  Benefits  to  thefe  People  j  and 
I  am  fully  jufcified  in  fuch  Escpedlarions  from  the  Progrefs  already 

St  >< 

•J'     1 


'      i!